*digraph.txt*   For IdeaVIM version 0.12.0.  Last change: 2006 Nov 12

                  IdeaVIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Rick Maddy

Digraphs                                                *digraphs* *Digraphs*

Digraphs are used to enter characters that normally cannot be entered by
an ordinary keyboard.  These are mostly accented characters which have the
eighth bit set.  The digraphs are easier to remember than the decimal number
that can be entered with CTRL-V (see |i_CTRL-V|).

There is a brief introduction on digraphs in the user manual: |24.9|
An alternative is using the 'keymap' option.

1. Defining digraphs    |digraphs-define|
2. Using digraphs       |digraphs-use|
3. Default digraphs     |digraphs-default|

1. Defining digraphs                                    *digraphs-define*

                                                *:dig* *:digraphs*
:dig[raphs]             show currently defined digraphs.
                                                        *E104* *E39*

Example of the output of ":digraphs":
 TH   222  ss   223  a!   224  a'   225  a>   226  a?   227  a:   228

The first two characters in each column are the characters you have to type to
enter the digraph.

In the middle of each column is the resulting character.  This may be mangled
if you look at it on a system that does not support digraphs or if you print
this file.

The decimal number is the number of the character.

2. Using digraphs                                       *digraphs-use*

There are two methods to enter digraphs:                        *i_digraph*
        CTRL-K {char1} {char2}          or
        {char1} <BS> {char2}
The first is always available; the second only when the 'digraph' option is

If a digraph with {char1}{char2} does not exist, Vim searches for a digraph
{char2}{char1}.  This helps when you don't remember which character comes

Note that when you enter CTRL-K {char1}, where {char1} is a special key, Vim
enters the code for that special key.  This is not a digraph.

Once you have entered the digraph, Vim treats the character like a normal
character that occupies only one character in the file and on the screen.
        'B' <BS> 'B'    will enter the broken '|' character (166)
        'a' <BS> '>'    will enter an 'a' with a circumflex (226)
        CTRL-K '-' '-'  will enter a soft hyphen (173)

The current digraphs are listed with the ":digraphs" command.  Some of the
default ones are listed below |digraph-table|.

For CTRL-K, there is one general digraph: CTRL-K <Space> {char} will enter
{char} with the highest bit set.  You can use this to enter meta-characters.

The <Esc> character cannot be part of a digraph.  When hitting <Esc>, Vim
stops digraph entry and ends Insert mode or Command-line mode, just like
hitting an <Esc> out of digraph context.  Use CTRL-V 155 to enter meta-ESC

If you accidentally typed an 'a' that should be an 'e', you will type 'a' <BS>
'e'.  But that is a digraph, so you will not get what you want.  To correct
this, you will have to type <BS> e again.  To avoid this don't set the
'digraph' option and use CTRL-K to enter digraphs.

You may have problems using Vim with characters which have an ASCII value
above 128.  For example: You insert ue (u-umlaut) and the editor echoes \334
in Insert mode.  After leaving the Insert mode everything is fine.  Note that
fmt removes all characters with ASCII codes above 128 from the text being
formatted.  On some Unix systems this means you have to define the
environment-variable LC_CTYPE.  If you are using csh, then put the following
line in your .cshrc:
        setenv LC_CTYPE iso_8859_1

3. Default digraphs                                     *digraphs-default*

Vim comes with a set of default digraphs.  Check the output of ":digraphs" to
see them.

On most systems Vim uses the same digraphs.  They work for the Unicode and
ISO-8859-1 character sets.  These default digraphs are taken from the RFC1345
mnemonics.  To make it easy to remember the mnemonic, the second character has
a standard meaning:

        char name               char    meaning 
        Exclamation mark        !       Grave
        Apostrophe              '       Acute accent
        Greater-Than sign       >       Circumflex accent
        Question Mark           ?       tilde
        Hyphen-Minus            -       Macron
        Left parenthesis        (       Breve
        Full Stop               .       Dot Above
        Colon                   :       Diaeresis
        Comma                   ,       Cedilla
        Underline               _       Underline
        Solidus                 /       Stroke
        Quotation mark          "       Double acute accent
        Semicolon               ;       Ogonek
        Less-Than sign          <       Caron
        Zero                    0       Ring above
        Two                     2       Hook
        Nine                    9       Horn

        Equals                  =       Cyrillic
        Asterisk                *       Greek
        Percent sign            %       Greek/Cyrillic special
        Plus                    +       smalls: Arabic, capitals: Hebrew
        Three                   3       some Latin/Greek/Cyrillic letters
        Four                    4       Bopomofo
        Five                    5       Hiragana
        Six                     6       Katakana

Example: a: is   and o: is 

These are the RFC1345 digraphs for the one-byte characters.  See the output of
":digraphs" for the others. All two character digraphs from RFC1345 are
char  digraph   hex     dec     official name 
^@      NU      0x00      0     NULL (NUL)
^A      SH      0x01      1     START OF HEADING (SOH)
^B      SX      0x02      2     START OF TEXT (STX)
^C      EX      0x03      3     END OF TEXT (ETX)
^D      ET      0x04      4     END OF TRANSMISSION (EOT)
^E      EQ      0x05      5     ENQUIRY (ENQ)
^F      AK      0x06      6     ACKNOWLEDGE (ACK)
^G      BL      0x07      7     BELL (BEL)
^H      BS      0x08      8     BACKSPACE (BS)
^I      HT      0x09      9     CHARACTER TABULATION (HT)
^@      LF      0x0a     10     LINE FEED (LF)
^K      VT      0x0b     11     LINE TABULATION (VT)
^L      FF      0x0c     12     FORM FEED (FF)
^M      CR      0x0d     13     CARRIAGE RETURN (CR)
^N      SO      0x0e     14     SHIFT OUT (SO)
^O      SI      0x0f     15     SHIFT IN (SI)
^P      DL      0x10     16     DATALINK ESCAPE (DLE)
^Q      D1      0x11     17     DEVICE CONTROL ONE (DC1)
^R      D2      0x12     18     DEVICE CONTROL TWO (DC2)
^S      D3      0x13     19     DEVICE CONTROL THREE (DC3)
^T      D4      0x14     20     DEVICE CONTROL FOUR (DC4)
^U      NK      0x15     21     NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE (NAK)
^V      SY      0x16     22     SYNCRONOUS IDLE (SYN)
^W      EB      0x17     23     END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK (ETB)
^X      CN      0x18     24     CANCEL (CAN)
^Y      EM      0x19     25     END OF MEDIUM (EM)
^Z      SB      0x1a     26     SUBSTITUTE (SUB)
^[      EC      0x1b     27     ESCAPE (ESC)
^\      FS      0x1c     28     FILE SEPARATOR (IS4)
^]      GS      0x1d     29     GROUP SEPARATOR (IS3)
^^      RS      0x1e     30     RECORD SEPARATOR (IS2)
^_      US      0x1f     31     UNIT SEPARATOR (IS1)
        SP      0x20     32     SPACE
#       Nb      0x23     35     NUMBER SIGN
$       DO      0x24     36     DOLLAR SIGN
@       At      0x40     64     COMMERCIAL AT
[       <(      0x5b     91     LEFT SQUARE BRACKET
\       //      0x5c     92     REVERSE SOLIDUS
]       )>      0x5d     93     RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET
^       '>      0x5e     94     CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
`       '!      0x60     96     GRAVE ACCENT
{       (!      0x7b    123     LEFT CURLY BRACKET
|       !!      0x7c    124     VERTICAL LINE
}       !)      0x7d    125     RIGHT CURLY BRACKET
~       '?      0x7e    126     TILDE
^?      DT      0x7f    127     DELETE (DEL)
~@      PA      0x80    128     PADDING CHARACTER (PAD)
~A      HO      0x81    129     HIGH OCTET PRESET (HOP)
~B      BH      0x82    130     BREAK PERMITTED HERE (BPH)
~C      NH      0x83    131     NO BREAK HERE (NBH)
~D      IN      0x84    132     INDEX (IND)
~E      NL      0x85    133     NEXT LINE (NEL)
~F      SA      0x86    134     START OF SELECTED AREA (SSA)
~G      ES      0x87    135     END OF SELECTED AREA (ESA)
~H      HS      0x88    136     CHARACTER TABULATION SET (HTS)
~J      VS      0x8a    138     LINE TABULATION SET (VTS)
~K      PD      0x8b    139     PARTIAL LINE FORWARD (PLD)
~L      PU      0x8c    140     PARTIAL LINE BACKWARD (PLU)
~M      RI      0x8d    141     REVERSE LINE FEED (RI)
~N      S2      0x8e    142     SINGLE-SHIFT TWO (SS2)
~O      S3      0x8f    143     SINGLE-SHIFT THREE (SS3)
~P      DC      0x90    144     DEVICE CONTROL STRING (DCS)
~Q      P1      0x91    145     PRIVATE USE ONE (PU1)
~R      P2      0x92    146     PRIVATE USE TWO (PU2)
~S      TS      0x93    147     SET TRANSMIT STATE (STS)
~T      CC      0x94    148     CANCEL CHARACTER (CCH)
~U      MW      0x95    149     MESSAGE WAITING (MW)
~V      SG      0x96    150     START OF GUARDED AREA (SPA)
~W      EG      0x97    151     END OF GUARDED AREA (EPA)
~X      SS      0x98    152     START OF STRING (SOS)
~Z      SC      0x9a    154     SINGLE CHARACTER INTRODUCER (SCI)
~[      CI      0x9b    155     CONTROL SEQUENCE INTRODUCER (CSI)
~\      ST      0x9c    156     STRING TERMINATOR (ST)
~]      OC      0x9d    157     OPERATING SYSTEM COMMAND (OSC)
~^      PM      0x9e    158     PRIVACY MESSAGE (PM)
~_      AC      0x9f    159     APPLICATION PROGRAM COMMAND (APC)
|       NS      0xa0    160     NO-BREAK SPACE
        !I      0xa1    161     INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK
        Ct      0xa2    162     CENT SIGN
        Pd      0xa3    163     POUND SIGN
        Cu      0xa4    164     CURRENCY SIGN
        Ye      0xa5    165     YEN SIGN
        BB      0xa6    166     BROKEN BAR
        SE      0xa7    167     SECTION SIGN
        ':      0xa8    168     DIAERESIS
        Co      0xa9    169     COPYRIGHT SIGN
        -a      0xaa    170     FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR
        <<      0xab    171     LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
        NO      0xac    172     NOT SIGN
        --      0xad    173     SOFT HYPHEN
        Rg      0xae    174     REGISTERED SIGN
        'm      0xaf    175     MACRON
        DG      0xb0    176     DEGREE SIGN
        +-      0xb1    177     PLUS-MINUS SIGN
        2S      0xb2    178     SUPERSCRIPT TWO
        3S      0xb3    179     SUPERSCRIPT THREE
        ''      0xb4    180     ACUTE ACCENT
        My      0xb5    181     MICRO SIGN
        PI      0xb6    182     PILCROW SIGN
        .M      0xb7    183     MIDDLE DOT
        ',      0xb8    184     CEDILLA
        1S      0xb9    185     SUPERSCRIPT ONE
        -o      0xba    186     MASCULINE ORDINAL INDICATOR
        >>      0xbb    187     RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
        14      0xbc    188     VULGAR FRACTION ONE QUARTER
        12      0xbd    189     VULGAR FRACTION ONE HALF
        34      0xbe    190     VULGAR FRACTION THREE QUARTERS
        ?I      0xbf    191     INVERTED QUESTION MARK
        A!      0xc0    192     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH GRAVE
        A'      0xc1    193     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE
        A>      0xc2    194     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX
        A?      0xc3    195     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH TILDE
        A:      0xc4    196     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS
        AA      0xc5    197     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE
        AE      0xc6    198     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER AE
        C,      0xc7    199     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA
        E!      0xc8    200     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH GRAVE
        E'      0xc9    201     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH ACUTE
        E>      0xca    202     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX
        E:      0xcb    203     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH DIAERESIS
        I!      0xcc    204     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH GRAVE
        I'      0xcd    205     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH ACUTE
        I>      0xce    206     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH CIRCUMFLEX
        I:      0xcf    207     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH DIAERESIS
        D-      0xd0    208     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER ETH (Icelandic)
        N?      0xd1    209     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH TILDE
        O!      0xd2    210     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH GRAVE
        O'      0xd3    211     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH ACUTE
        O>      0xd4    212     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX
        O?      0xd5    213     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH TILDE
        O:      0xd6    214     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS
        *X      0xd7    215     MULTIPLICATION SIGN
        O/      0xd8    216     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH STROKE
        U!      0xd9    217     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH GRAVE
        U'      0xda    218     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH ACUTE
        U>      0xdb    219     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH CIRCUMFLEX
        U:      0xdc    220     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS
        Y'      0xdd    221     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH ACUTE
        TH      0xde    222     LATIN CAPITAL LETTER THORN (Icelandic)
        ss      0xdf    223     LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S (German)
        a!      0xe0    224     LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH GRAVE
        a'      0xe1    225     LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH ACUTE
        a>      0xe2    226     LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX
        a?      0xe3    227     LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH TILDE
        a:      0xe4    228     LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS
        aa      0xe5    229     LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE
        ae      0xe6    230     LATIN SMALL LETTER AE
        c,      0xe7    231     LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA
        e!      0xe8    232     LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH GRAVE
        e'      0xe9    233     LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE
        e>      0xea    234     LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX
        e:      0xeb    235     LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH DIAERESIS
        i!      0xec    236     LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH GRAVE
        i'      0xed    237     LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH ACUTE
        i>      0xee    238     LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH CIRCUMFLEX
        i:      0xef    239     LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH DIAERESIS
        d-      0xf0    240     LATIN SMALL LETTER ETH (Icelandic)
        n?      0xf1    241     LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH TILDE
        o!      0xf2    242     LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH GRAVE
        o'      0xf3    243     LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH ACUTE
        o>      0xf4    244     LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX
        o?      0xf5    245     LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH TILDE
        o:      0xf6    246     LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS
        -:      0xf7    247     DIVISION SIGN
        o/      0xf8    248     LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH STROKE
        u!      0xf9    249     LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH GRAVE
        u'      0xfa    250     LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH ACUTE
        u>      0xfb    251     LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH CIRCUMFLEX
        u:      0xfc    252     LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS
        y'      0xfd    253     LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH ACUTE
        th      0xfe    254     LATIN SMALL LETTER THORN (Icelandic)
        y:      0xff    255     LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS